Friday, November 14, 2014

Ezekiel's Flawed Ethics - the Die at 75 Plan

Ezekiel Emanuel wrote an article for the Atlantic on "Why I Hope to Die at 75 - An argument that society and families—and you—will be better off if nature takes its course swiftly and promptly."  As an Oncologist and Ethicist, he says he speaks for himself but implies not so subtlety that it may be best to avoid the consequences of aging and declining health (which probably really begins around age 25).  For himself he would not want any medical tests or therapeutics after age 75.  He argues that the productive years of life are over, that accomplishments should be complete, and that prolonging aging and its consequences is something he wishes to avoid.

Recently, I gave a talk called "Your Life Your Choices" to a couple of life-care communities where the average age was near 80 and most were still in independent living.  Many had lost their spouses and most, by definition, had some degree of declining health.  Sounds depressing doesn't it?  Yet these folks were active - in their faith groups, with their grandchildren, swimming, singing, playing and performing in bands or quartets, line dancing, playing tennis (a few), golf, and enjoying each others company.  There was keen recognition and understanding about end-of-life issues.  Many had POLST forms saying they would never want CPR, but they would accept removing an appendix, taking an antibiotic, and even a new knee or hip. 

I showed these groups a video of CPR, and talked for about 90 minutes about having "the conversation" with loved ones, designating a durable power of attorney for health care, etc. It seems that Emanuel wants to shock us to to accepting that we need to face up to the declining years and make plans so I discussed Emanuel's proposal in these groups.  None of them felt they should have died 5 years ago!

Emanuel states that his family disagrees with his wishes.  I hope he can find someone to follow them and respect his autonomy.  But what if he comes in with an infected hangnail with an ascending infection threatening his life with septicemia.  At age 74 take an antibiotic, but decline at 75?

So I think I get his over-exaggerated point that we need to think carefully about prolonging the dying process when we are at an end.  But, with due respect, I think his ethics are flawed.  He is discounting the delight of being old and still functional.  Yes, we won't win a Nobel Prize.  But how about the joy of attending a grandchild's concert, going up to the lake cabin once more with the family, traveling together to Alaska, singing old favorites, volunteering at the food bank or library, or going to the opera.  Ezekiel, there is no age cutoff for enjoying family, friends, and the pleasures of life.  Even though you say you don't support "death with dignity", you are basically proposing that for yourself when you would even decline taking an antibiotic after age 75.

As we die, we leave a legacy for those we leave behind.  Ethical wills, sharing our values, showing love, and supporting our loved ones - yes, even as our spouses age.  There's nothing wrong with a cane, a walker, or a wheelchair - enjoyable life can still be there for many of us.  There can be growth in our spiritual life and new-found loves even as we experience loss.  The old saying "getting old isn't for sissies" rings true because aging does have its trials.  Personally I think rekindling an old forgotten friendship is more important, and perhaps as satisfying, as your climb of Mt. Kilimanjaro.

At age 76, as I write this, I think your ethical view of aging is at best cloudy and seems based on fear of loss rather than autonomy.  Yes, there are problems of cost, resources, and "getting out of the way" for the next generation.  But with my new corneas, I can drive safely again.  I love playing tennis doubles with my 80 year old friends twice a week.  Should I have resigned to go blind at 75?  At your healthy age of 58 Ezekiel, you seem to have a peculiar disconnect with those aging and declining in health.  So please re-write your article at age 74!

Sunday, November 9, 2014

Deja Vu All Over Again




Ebola Exhumes Some Long-Buried AIDS Pain.

The near-stampede in recent weeks
has brought back a special patient.
Isolated by a label, from her family,
and alone in her mind, from a disease.
~~~
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy.
PML doesn't conjure the Grim Reaper, 
or the confusion and isolation it imposed.                                                                  
My AIDS patient would tell me 
how the world came into and out of focus,
through many domains in her life.

Seeing: from broad vista to tunnel vision;         
Hearing: from unremitting echoes to faint pins dropping;
 Space: from a narrow maze of halls to a cavernous airport concourse;         
             from her doctor at her door, a distant figure on the horizon,
             to a Trojan Horse.
Work: from what she did, to who she was;
Appreciation of beauty: from princess to Cinderella, to forgotten.
Autonomy: her arm - from team player to isolated (Alien Hand Syndrome)
Connection: from intimate to estranged, to alone.
~~~
Some doctors wouldn't treat.Home health aides walked away.          
Are we treading on thin ice,
taking the same road?

~~~Terry Hourigan, R.N.

Photo: Terry Hourigan
AIDS ward 6A
N.Y.C.
1990's


Friday, November 7, 2014

Voluntary Stopping Eating and Drinking (VSED)

Just today I attended the Washington State End of Life Coalition annual meeting where there is always a lot of sharing of stories.  Phyllis Shacter from Bellingham gave a very moving account of her husband's onset of Alzheimer's and how he ultimately decided the path of VSED while he was still mentally competent.  Here's a link to her TEDxBellington Talk: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiYPaU3h3w8

I don't know if you've seen the French movie, "Amour", which is a beautiful but sad story about an aging French couple with deteriorating health.  Their path of dying was unsupported and tragic.  Please see this link (http://www.endoflifeblog.com/2013/02/amour-disturbingly-beautiful-film.html) for more discussion about the movie and VSED.

Monday, November 3, 2014

Brittany Maynard's Way of Dying

Brittany Maynard has passed from this life.  This brave but unfortunate 29 year old woman with incurable progressive brain cancer drew public attention by choosing to go public with her choice about end of life care.

"Brittany suffered increasingly frequent and longer seizures, severe head and neck pain, and stroke-like symptoms," according to a statement Sunday night from Sean Crowley, spokesman for Compassion & Choices, a national nonprofit working to expand end-of-life options.  "As symptoms grew more severe, she chose to abbreviate the dying process by taking the aid-in-dying medication she had received months ago. This choice is authorized under the Oregon Death With Dignity Act. She died as she intended — peacefully in her bedroom, in the arms of her loved ones," the statement said.

Her decision to post a video and promote dialogue is stimulating an important conversation.  Brittany did not want to die and felt that the term suicide did not ring true in her case.  She did not want to suffer. As the end approached she wanted to be able to die on her own terms.  In the comments to this article, many supported Brittany but a few felt that dying should not be by "assisted suicide".  Indeed, with good palliative and hospice care, "death with dignity" is relatively rare even in the states where it is legal - Oregon, Washington, Vermont, and Montana.  About 1 in 500 deaths are by self ingestion of prescribed lethal drugs.

The fears of the "slippery slope" leading to wider use or abuse have not materialized, but these fears are not unfounded.  I'm a little surprised that Oregon does not keep track of the "tourists" who come to their state for "death with dignity".  It's important to be transparent here.  Some critics fear the "culture of death" to such an extent that they oppose the POLST form and continue to promote the irrational fear of government sponsored "Death Panels".

To me the positive aspects of a case like Brittany's are not only the battle over "death with dignity".  Rather, it's a flash point to get us talking about the inevitable fact that we are all going to die.  In this conversation, we need to talk about our values, hopes, and fears.  Most importantly we need to appoint a person as our Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care, because there's a 50% chance we will be too sick to participate in the discussion about our wishes when we are near life's end.

Thank you and God bless, Brittany.  You are in a better place now.  And you have left behind a legacy that we all need to have choices and have the important conversation about end of life wishes.



Thursday, October 2, 2014

Access to Morphine - a Human Right

In a recent op-ed piece in the New York Times, it's noted that access to morphine is quite limited in the poorer countries:  "As with all successful human rights movements, we need to put a face on the injustice of untreated cancer pain. Witnessing a clinic full of poor children with advanced cancer, crying in agony, should convince anyone that access to morphine is a human right."

Palliative Care as a specialty is a relatively recent innovation in the USA.  More attention is now being paid to end-of-life situations, the access to palliative care even in the USA varies widely.  Morphine costs just pennies, but the concerns over narcotic abuse has limited its use worldwide.  I remember doctors and nurses not wanting to give too much over fear of addiction.  I'd say, "Look, the patient is dying and suffering.  Do you really think addiction to morphine is a concern?"

Careful titration of morphine at the end of life is a blessing.  It reduces pain and shortness of breath plus it produces calm and even euphoria thereby improving the quality of life in life's final days.  It's time to heed the call.  Let's continue to promote the appropriate use of morphine world wide.  It's inexpensive and doable.  It's not only the right thing to do, it's a human right.

Saturday, September 27, 2014

Institute of Medicine's Report on Dying in America

 Recently the Institute of Medicine has issued a comprehensive report on end of life care in America.  This two year review by a diverse and highly qualified committee was supported in part by an anonymous donor.  The complete report and summaries are available to download in a PDF format.

See this for a video report by the pannel.

A recent editorial in the New York Times discusses just how broken and difficult to navigate our "system" of health care can become.  Do we have the ability to improve?  Yes, but not without a lot of changes which are recommended in the Institute of Medicine's report.

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

End of Life Conversations - Progress?

Much is being made of the AMA's recommendation to reimburse doctors for the time they take in having end-of-life discussions with their patients.  The recommendations appear to have a good chance of being covered by Medicare and certainly are a step in the right direction.  But will one conversation and the completed documents really work?  Well, like so many other situations - it depends!

How skilled is the medical provider in having the conversation?  What kind materials are shared?  Videos?  Pamphlets?  Web sites?  What's the follow up?  Are the loved ones involved?  And, most importantly, does completion of the documents really affect end of life care.  We only die once so we get no practice at this or being a critically ill patient.  So how will we really understand the choices and make sure they are known?

There is some data that advance directives don't work, at times aren't honored, well prepared, or even available when needed.

Respecting Choices has attacked the problem successfully and systematically and should be a guiding force showing us how to do advance care planning in an effective programmatic fashion.  On the home front, I've been involved in presenting programs in the community called "Your Life Your Choices".  This program lasts 90 minutes and is well received but only scratches the surface of the complex choices.

A single reimbursable visit for an end-of-life discussion is a good place to start - but much more is needed in order to have an organized way to provide the care that the patient understands and truly wants.  There are technology drivers in medicine that can put a lot of us the ICU on life support.  The conversation and the directives can help, but often aren't definitive.

The POLST form is the most definitive document, but isn't available in many states.  It basically puts your wishes into medical orders which are legal and binding.

So it is beneficial to pay doctors to have this 15 minute discussion and have documentation of the patient's wishes carried out.  But we need to avoid a hasty and mechanistic way of doing this.  The conversation is never easy, straightforward, or simple.  Lots of clarification and questions need to be addressed.  The systems like Respecting Choices (above) address this well.

Thursday, August 28, 2014

Forever Young - Pete Seeger at 91

As I grow older, I find it so refreshing to be around my grandchildren.  It's their idealism mixed with innocence and craziness that attracts me and carries me back many years.  Also, I find it exciting and pleasing when my contemporaries "act young" - being willing to overlook their health complaints, to try new adventures, to volunteer, to connect with others, to sing and to dance.

All this reminds me of  Bob Dylan's song, "Forever Young".  Also when Steve Jobs died, Norah Jones played this song in tribute.

But my all time favorite version of "Forever Young" is the 91 year old Pete Seeger voicing this song with the Rivertown Children's Choir from Beacon, NY - Pete's home town along the Hudson River.  Pete couldn't really sing at that age, so a voice-over with the children's choir was professionally produced with amazing video and sound mixing.

He died peacefully on January 27, 2014, at the age of 94.  He was chopping wood until 10 days before his death.  According to Wikipedia, "When asked about his religious or spiritual views, Seeger replied: 'I feel most spiritual when I’m out in the woods. I feel part of nature.  Or looking up at the stars. [I used to say] I was an atheist. Now I say, it’s all according to your definition of God. According to my definition of God, I’m not an atheist. Because I think God is everything. Whenever I open my eyes I’m looking at God. Whenever I’m listening to something I’m listening to God.'"

May Pete's charm, enthusiasm, and music keep us all forever young.


Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Alone

Missing the dark side. 


How many times have I stood next to someone who gave up few signs and shared little, and camouflaged or diverted or joked so expertly that I thought he might be just like me - someone with connections and support?  "See you next week."  To take in a broader view beyond suicide, my heart goes to dying alone.  Dying in solitary, in no one's company, is a thought I can't abide.  I once worked in EMS in New York City.  Occasionally a call came to meet the medical examiner at an apartment, where someone would be pronounced, alone. If there were a pet who now was orphaned, it focused the nature of the loss and for me, amplified an unremitting pain for those who have no one.   Since then I have had to face my own death twice; as a nurse I have almost twenty years working in home hospice - yet nothing I experienced there can compare to the weight of these lonely deaths, which have given me some of the worst nights I have spent, before or since.

Robin Williams:  "I used to think the worst thing in life is to end up all alone.   It's not. The worst thing in life is ending up with people who make you feel all alone."  
I would dread facing that choice.       

Terry Hourigan, R.N.
Photo: Frank Burnside




Sunday, August 3, 2014

Medical Ethics - Paternalism vs Autonomy

I was taught in medical school (some 50 years ago) that doctors had a special duty to protect the patient.  That seemed self evident and logical.  "Do no harm" was a first principle dating back to Hippocrates. However the teaching I received extended the concept to also protect the patient from bad news, and to make "the right" decision for them - not necessarily including them in the conversation or decision making because "it would be too hard on them.".

"Students, you should never tell a patient of the diagnosis of cancer", pontificated our chief of surgery.  "You should protect them and not give them a fatal diagnosis.  Do not tell them that the cancer has progressed, but do let a trusted family member know."

Thursday, June 12, 2014

When to Consider Boerhaave's Syndrome

Mary, at age 77, fell and was admitted to the hospital with a hip fracture and had surgery the following day.  Post-operatively she received narcotics for moderate pain.  Unfortunately she had vomiting and retching, then developed severe abdominal pain.  She had a history of a prior appendectomy, prior gall bladder removal, moderate COPD, and mild heart failure.

Accompanying the pain, her blood pressure fell, she became short of breath, and her oxygen levels fell.  This rapidly progressed.  Cultures were taken for infection, a chest X-Ray done, and antibiotics initiated.  Her kidneys began to malfunction and early signs of shock were present.

Her doctors thought of aspiration pneumonia, esophagitis, a dissecting aneurysm, heart attack, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism - but were on the wrong track.  The X-Ray should have helped but was interpreted as not showing free air around the lungs or in the soft tissues.  A subsequent CT scan however, did show an abnormal collection of air in these areas.

Finally after 18 hours of going down the wrong path, a diagnosis of a ruptured esophagus was considered.  This was confirmed by putting some contrast dye down the esophagus showing it to leak into the surrounding tissues.  Also, an enzyme only present in saliva was present in the fluid from around the lung.

She was taken to surgery for repair 24 hours after presenting with pain, at a time when the mortality begins to approach 50 - 75%.  Unfortunately she continued to deteriorate and ultimately was placed on comfort care prior to dying.

Comment:  Herman Boerhaave was a brilliant Dutch physician, botanist, and humanist who, in 1724, described a corpulent patient's proclivity toward self-inducted vomiting in allow him to indulge in further overeating.  At autopsy his patient, Baron Jan Van Wassenaer, had olive oil and roast duck flesh outside an esophageal tear.  The condition known as Boerhaave's Syndrome is relatively rare but one of those bits of knowledge that needs to be in the thinking of surgeons and critical care physicians.  Unfortunately a delay in diagnosis of 24 hours leads to a very high mortality.  Samuel Johnson has written an interesting biography of Boerhaave.

Sunday, May 25, 2014

CPR Without Consent

Agnes was out shopping at her local corner store.  At age 82 her body was beginning to show typical signs of aging.  She had survived breast cancer surgery, a hip replacement, and cataract surgery.  Her doctors told her she had osteoporosis and low Vitamin D.  She took medications for her hypertension, cholesterol, and osteoporosis.  Her spine had begun to curve and her gait was a few steps slower.  Yet, with her shopping cart she still enjoyed her trips to the store.  Her best friend had suffered a cardiac arrest recently and didn't survive the hospital stay.  She discussed this with her retirement home personnel and decided she never would want CPR.  A "Do-Not-Resuscitate" order was initiated by completing a POLST form (Physician's Order for Life Sustaining Treatment).  She made copies of the POLST form giving them to her physician and retirement home staff.

While at the corner store, Agnes felt light headed and sat for a moment but then slumped to the floor.  Shoppers at the store immediately started CPR and 911 summoned the Medics.  With the standard 1.5 to 2" compressions of the sternum, multiple ribs were broken and the lungs were later found to be punctured.  Her heart rhythm was "shockable" and after 5 shocks, she stabilized and was taken to a nearby ICU.  The next few days were stormy both medically and ethically.  The hospital staff felt they had preserved a life, yet the family said she was ready to "pass on" and didn't want the heroic life support.  Finally the family and POLST form wishes prevailed and she was "allowed" to die in the ICU after the tubes were removed.

Comment:  Society generally prohibits us from medically or surgically treating a patient without their informed consent.  However society places, quite naturally, a high value on preserving life.  Since the 1960's CPR has been evolving and improving.  It has been popularized on multiple TV shows such as ER, where the survival rates approach 66%, much higher that the real word data (which continues to improve).

The "frail elderly" are a particular problem because the trauma of CPR may cause more harm than good in some individuals.  The statistics of young people don't apply to the elderly.  And many elderly just don't want CPR saying, "I've had a full life and having my heart stop wouldn't be a bad way to go."

Yet all of us are "signed up" for CPR, unless there's a really clear way to avoid it.  Some families simply don't call 911, some have POLST forms, or some spouses and caregivers are able intercept the process by demonstrating they have power of attorney for health care.

The American Bar Association has come up with a smart phone app to store advance directives and other medical data which might be helpful to the techie generation.  Some states have free registries and there is a fee based national registry for advance care documents, but finding these can be difficult in the acute situation.

The frustrating bottom line for the "frail elderly" is that very few of us have had an informed consent discussion about the pros and cons of CPR.  And even if we decide, "Heck, I'd never want anything like that", a lot can still go wrong in terms of knowing and respecting our wishes.  Even a "No Code" tattoo on your chest isn't legally binding!  So in addition to having "the conversation" with your doctor and loved ones, try to come up with a plan if you really want to avoid CPR.  One thought is to electronically store any POLST/DNR orders with 911 responders.  That way, when they are summoned, the orders will be immediately available.   This may a concept worth field testing.

Friday, April 25, 2014

A Moral Community in the ICU

When I entered the room, my patient was surrounded by worried family.  They had lots of questions.  My concern was that I didn't know either the patient or family.  Dan had been brought to the ICU after a cardiac arrest outside the hospital.  The medics had gotten the heart restarted with CPR and shocks, but Dan was unconscious and on a ventilator.  So how to begin?

I introduced myself and explained that I needed to examine Sam and get more information from the family, then we would see what else we needed to do.  The anxiety was palpable.  He was soon to also be seen by the neurologist.  The cardiologist felt that his heart was "stable" and that he had had an arrhythmia, not a heart attack.

A son from Minneapolis was calling in.  The two other children at the bedside and Sam's wife, Marilynne, were in tears.

So how do I proceed from here?  The medical evaluations were pretty straight forward.  But communicating with the family is something I only learned over time.

Family conferences and  decision making with the medical providers occurs daily in the ICU, but the effectiveness varies widely.  A medical social worker and I developed a shared decision making pathway for medical providers to use.  One of the steps in the process is the concept of forming a moral community.

We would invite the family to meet in a quiet place, have a telephone/speaker for those unable to be there, and go around the room introducing ourselves.  The moral community concept is much like what goes on in an ethics committee discussion. The discussion centers around the patient's wishes and values respecting the patient's autonomy.  The community of caregivers (medical and family) begins to form around those values and wishes.  Caring, empathy and sharing are all key to begin to have the group act functionally as a moral community.  Modeling of these behaviors at times helps deal with the anger and frustration often present.

For more information please see our publication about a guide to shared decision making in serious illness.

Dan's family was devastated that he suffered irreversible brain death following his cardiac arrest.  Using shared decision making they agreed with removal of life support.  Allowing transparency, showing caring, focusing on Dan's wishes and values - all of these gave the family a sense that they were doing the right thing.

Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Is the Use of the POLST Form Controversial?

Susan was 76 and dying at home in the days before Hospice and before the use of the POLST form.  A neighbor came in the relieve Susan's daughter who went to the store.  Suddenly Susan stopped breathing and the neighbor called 911.  The medics came and, not having instructions to the contrary, did CPR and brought her to our ER unconscious and intubated.  The ER physician called me in the ICU saying, "We got a sad situation here.  He explained what happened and that the daughter, who finally found Mom in the ER, was distraught saying, "None of this should have happened."

We let the patient die in the ER, had social service work with the family.  The medics were upset that they'd performed CPR ("medical last rites") in such a patient.  The ER wasn't pleased to have a patient die there but a hospital admission seemed pointless.

The POLST (Physician's Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment) was pioneered in Oregon in 1991 and has gradually worked its way state by state so that about 26 states now have a POLST statute.  It has been validated in Oregon to be effective in honoring a patient's wishes.  The medics I have worked with have praised the POLST form because it tells them exactly what to do, or not do, if they are called and the form is available.

The POLST is most commonly advocated for those expected to die within a year or the very frail elderly.  The form translates the patient's values and wishes into actual medical orders which will be honored by 911 responders.  In Washington the form must be signed by the patient (or surrogate) and the medical provider.

But it's not without controversy and the criticism sounds much like the fear over Death Panels which has, gratefully, died away.  Conservative Catholic bishops in Wisconsin and a few media sites have warned of the dire consequences of POLST forms.  Their criticism implies that they are Do Not Resuscitate forms that also withhold antibiotics, fluids and nutrition.  Actually the forms do allow for a wide range of choices from full care, limited care, or comfort care.  They are intended to put the patient's wishes into real time medical orders.  They can be revoked by the patient or surrogate if circumstances change.

Probably the most common site for the use of the POLST is with Hospice patients, who are expected to die within six months.  But there is a tendency now to use (or even try to require) the use of the POLST form in retirement community facilities and nursing homes.  Recently I gave a talk about advance care planning to a well known retirement community in Seattle.  "How many of you have completed your Living Will and Power of Attorney for Health Care?", I asked.  80 or 80 responded positively.  But the surprise was that 70 of 80 had completed POLST forms.  These were folks probably from their mid seventies up into the 90's but all were in independent living (no assisted living, etc.).  To me this is a surprising use of the POLST form and goes beyond its initial intention.  Do all of the 75 year olds really know their wishes about a ventilator for pneumonia, or CPR, etc?  Of course the POLST form can say, "Do Everything" but then it becomes redundant.  Also, in a practical sense how is the POLST form going to be reviewed or retrieved if the patient is in the dining room or gym or out shopping?  Registries can be tried but real-time access is needed in the acute situation for the POLST to prevent unwanted CPR (hence bright color is used so the medics can spot it).  However, some aging rather healthy folks seem sure that they do not want CPR in any circumstances.

At a talk I gave yesterday in California, a couple showed me the bracelets they were wearing that referred to their completed POLST form.  He was in his 80's and she was a hospice chaplain in her early 70's.  I asked her, "How can you really be sure that you'd not ever want CPR?"  She responded, "I just don't like the odds.  I'd rather pass on tha than risk severe brain damage.  I've had a pleasant life, and a cardiac arrest wouldn't be a bad way to die, ever though their might be a 25% chance of getting me back to my normal self with CPR."  So this use of POLST may have this practical use in certain well informed folks who are sure of their choices, but it seems ill adapted for this.  Will the 911 responders really see their medic alert bracelets and will they really have time to find, thus honor, the POLST?

Even with this latter concern of mine, the benefit of the POLST is huge. Recently, the American Medical Directors Association indorsed the POLST,  But becoming mainstream in our rather broken heath care "system" in the USA will require more time for the POLST.  We can only hope that the remaining states can learn from the pioneering efforts in Oregon.  It indeed honors patient autonomy and choice.  And the states where the POLST is currently used, should have oversight and guidelines for appropriate use.


Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Vitamins Don't Work - Enough is Enough

When I was in medical school, our nutrition researchers taught us that vitamins didn't do much good and only made expensive urine (where the water soluble ones end up).  We did learn about the classic vitamin deficiencies like scurvy, beriberi, rickets, etc.  But the evidence that healthy people should take vitamins was marginal at best.

Is our search for immortality the reason that we turn to the pill or potion?  Do we continue to look for the fountain of youth that is linked to the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon.  (Though de Leon was really looking for the isle of Bimini rather than Florida and there's no mention historically that he was searching for perpetual youth.)  Yet the myth and tourist site remain popular.

So why do we turn to vitamins, supplements, anti-oxidants, nutriments, etc?  William Osler commented that “the desire to take medicine is perhaps the greatest feature which distinguishes man from animals.” Also Osler taught his medical students, "One of the first duties of the physician is to educate the masses not to take medicine."

Osler's concerns have been valid over the years, but often have been drowned out by errant science and the hype of the vitamin and supplement industry.

There have been prominent scientists who have been strong proponents of vitamins and supplements. Linus Pauling discovered the structure of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.  Unfortunately he became a "true believer" in vitamin C and other vitamins: "Pauling is largely responsible for the widespread misbelief that high doses of vitamin C are effective against colds and other illnesses. In 1968, he postulated that people's needs for vitamins and other nutrients vary markedly and that to maintain good health, many people need amounts of nutrients much greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). And he speculated that megadoses of certain vitamins and minerals might well be the treatment of choice for some forms of mental illness. He termed this approach "orthomolecular," meaning "right molecule." After that, he steadily expanded the list of illnesses he believed could be influenced by "orthomolecular" therapy and the number of nutrients suitable for such use. No responsible medical or nutrition scientists share these views."

Finally in modern times we now have a better view and summary of the ineffectiveness and harms of vitamins and mineral supplements published in the December 13th Annals of Internal Medicine:  "Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force"

The bottom line is that vitamin and mineral supplements for healthy individuals don't work and some may be harmful.  The editorial in the same issue concludes:  "β-carotene, vitamin E, and possibly high doses of vitamin A supplements are harmful. Other antioxidants, folic acid and B vitamins, and multivitamin and mineral supplements are ineffective for preventing mortality or morbidity due to major chronic diseases. Although available evidence does not rule out small benefits or harms or large benefits or harms in a small subgroup of the population, we believe that the case is closed— supplementing the diet of well-nourished adults with (most) mineral or vitamin supplements has no clear benefit and might even be harmful. These vitamins should not be used for chronic disease prevention. Enough is enough."

Recently Dr. Oz had a disastrous take-down in a Senate hearing about his "magical" claims of dietary supplements.  This is reported with bitingly epic humor is this epic video.


Monday, February 17, 2014

The Medical Industrial Complex is Driving Costs and Overtreatment

"Hey doc, I saw on an ad on the TV last night about this new asthma inhaler.  Shouldn't I give it a try?"  This type of question would occur several times a week.  When I started practicing medicine it was considered unethical to advertise medical treatments.  Now, we're bombarded with enticements for tests and treatments.  The inhaler the patient requested cost $264 a month - more than double what he was currently paying for an effective generic inhaler.

Somehow, we have brought into the hype that more is better, and that if you would just get your mammogram or PSA, that early detection would prevent cancer deaths down the line.  A recent study in the British Medical Journal found that the death rate comparing mammography with annual breast exams was no different.  And a significant number mammography patients went though additional surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy - which was unnecessary.  The effectiveness of PSA monitoring remains controversial, and many prostates are being removed where the negative effects far outweigh a theoretical possible benefit.

The evening news ads bombard us with "low T" warnings and erectile dysfunction treatment promotions.  Somehow, testosterone experimentation is happening, much like the era of  hormonal replacement for all menopausal women.  The warnings of these drugs like blindness, rising PSA, or stroke are gently spoken while watching loving couples swimming or smooching.

A friend is now monitoring her glucose daily, even though she is barely pre-diabetic.  Somehow, she feels the need to be constantly monitored for the condition she does not (yet) have.

A 90 years old wants his cholesterol checked.  He'd like a drug for it that he saw on TV.  Really?

Most of now have a medically attended birth and medically attended death.  We now have the benefit of effective medications for blood pressure, diabetes, and abnormal lipid panels.  But the medical industrial complex wants us to be major consumers - more visits, more tests, more surgeries.  There is some evidence that may be making the industry nervous as health cost increases seem to have leveled a bit.

The industry to struggling a bit to bring out new blockbuster billion dollar drugs.  The dollars that go into the health care system are coming from our pockets and insurance premiums.  Given the waste and inefficiencies in health care delivery, this hurts the entire economy and has allowed the medical-industrial complex to become bloated.  Obviously a balance is needed.

There is bloat in duplication and overuse of high tech equipment.  The fastest way to pay off a new scanner is to run more tests.  The incentives are to do more in the fee for service system.  Pharmacy and device sales reps abound in doctors offices and hospitals.  Ethical lines are blurred when free meals and paid lectures are offered to MD's by the industry.  TV and magazine ads drive up cost and utilization.  Administrators want a lucrative bottom line.

Interestingly, we seem to be at a break point in terms of medical costs.  More is being shifted to patients as companies offer only HSA plans and often high deductibles.  More doctors are becoming salaried.  Malpractice settlements have peaked and appear to be declining with subsequent savings in malpractice premiums.  More efficiencies appear to be evolving.  The congressional budget office has reduced its estimates of Medicare spending by 12% (109 billion) by 2020.

My concern is the that medical industrial complex will become even more aggressive.  The possibilities will be more ads, direct mailings, "free" screenings, discounted surgeries, false claims of testing and treatments, etc.

My advice:  be a careful and cautious consumer.  Don't become medicalized.  And to the medical profession:  be more proactive countering the barrage of biased information we hear and see daily.

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Cancer? How Much Time Will You Give Me?

Ben's first symptom was coughing up blood.  The cancer had been silently growing for months, if not a few years.  He had no pain or shortness of breath.  The chest X-Ray showed a "5 cm L hilar mass" and the subsequent CT scan showed enlarged lymph nodes and likely spread to the liver.

"So Doc, what is it?  A cancer?  How much time do you give me?"  All these questions on a first visit when I don't really know Ben, his family, or life situation.  As a pulmonologist, this scenario happened once or twice a week.  The patient was usually a smoker but Ben was not.  At age 49, he'd been a basically healthy guy.

I always found it important to say, "I don't know, but let's find out what's going on and here's the plan I'd suggest".  This usually included blood tests, the CT scan, and a bronchoscopy to find the diagnosis and make further plans.  It was far too soon to jump to Ben's future, but Ben said "Come on Doc, give me your educated guess."  I'd usually say, "My crystal ball is cloudy and I can't read your future but I promise I'll tell you all I know as we go along".

Bronchoscopy (from a pulmonologist's point of view) is a pretty simple outpatient procedure.  With the use of lidocaine to the vocal cords and airway and with very light use of short acting sedatives or narcotics a thin flexible scope is passed through the nose (usually) into the airways and everything is seen on a video monitor.  Ben's tumor was evident in the L mainstem bronchus - red rough angry looking tissue.  Biopsies of the tumor were done - and Ben wanted to see the monitor.  I showed him the findings and explained that we would know the diagnosis the next day.

It was a non-small cell carcinoma of the lung - the most common type.  Again Ben asked, "OK now how long to I have."  Small lung cancers that are near the periphery of the lungs have the best outlook and are often curable.  However Ben's cancer was subsequently proven to Stage 3B.

Again, Ben's question and how should I answer it.  Recently in the New York Times a young Neurosurgical Resident posed the question, "How Long Have I Got Left".  Where is any patient on the statistical curve?  How can we begin to know what the response to treatment will be?  Actually in the last decade there have been some significant improvements in treatments and survival in some patients, but the measured improvements are sometimes in months rather than years.

I would say to Ben, "I don't have the powers of a deity and can't see the future, but these are the broad statistics.  I'm hoping you may not only beat the averages but be an outlier.  You are younger and healthier than many of the patients studied.  You're not a statistic.  I'm sending you to the best cancer treatment and research center available so let's see what they have to say.  But it's going to be one day at a time.  I'd like to see you again once a plan is set in place.

Comment:  "Giving a patient time" can be self-fulfilling so doctors must be careful.  On the other hand, refusing to lay out the realistic outcome of other patients (statistics), is denying the patient of information they often want to know.  Staying connected with the patient provides emotional support as they transition to oncologists or surgeons.  It's the human to human connection that makes medicine the most powerful - and humane.  It's also important not to dodge the issue of death.  When the patient reaches the stage of dying, doctor's often fail to tell the patient that it's time for hospice and comfort care.  We need to be comfortable with mortality and frailty - both our own and the patient's.  We need the judgment and wisdom to guide the dying patient to palliative and comfort care.

Friday, November 29, 2013

What's a Type A Continuing Care Retirement Community?

John and Eva had ongoing conversations about their home which was now far too big for their needs and lots of trouble and expense to repair and keep up.  John said, "It's the yard, the leaves, the painting, and general repair and replacement problems.  What's next to go?  The refrigerator or me?"  Eva was tired of shopping and cooking.  Her arthritis was slowing her down.  She told John, "OK, you retired from work, but when do I retire from cooking?"  Also, they were beginning to lose contemporaries and their social life was shrinking.  There was a growing sense of isolation.  Their children and grandchildren had busy lives and couldn't be part of their daily life.

The started looking around at Continuing Care Retirement Communities and found lots of options and a fair amount of confusion about what might be future costs.  They were leaning toward a "Type A" CCRC, but each of those had somewhat different costs, though they were much more inclusive than Type B or C, the latter being fee for service.

But the headaches were just starting.  They had raised four children who were now on their own, but the remnants of their possessions were still in their house along with "stuff" that they had inherited from prior generations.  John read an article about "possession paralysis" in the New York Times and shared it with Eva.  "It fits us doesn't it Eva.  We're both pack-rats and we have been putting off moving partially due to all the "stuff" we have."

So they began to downsize - trips to the library to donate books, trips to Goodwill to donate, giving things away to family, but this hardly made a dent.  "We have all this china, crystal, and silver but there's just no market except for the silver metal.  Don't kids entertain any more?"  The children began to step in with Craig's List, eBay, and hauling stuff out to their own homes and an estate sale.

They finally found the CCRC they were hoping for and it came time to do a pricey buy-in which was painful even though their estate would get 80% of it back.  The housing market was beginning to bounce back and it seemed like a good time to put their home on the market, get a "bridge loan" and plan a move.

Both John and Eva found the whole experience stressful, but couldn't see anyway around it except to continue on in their own home, and hire in help eventually if needed.  Eva said she was so emotionally attached to family things that "possession paralysis" felt very real to her.  Yet she didn't want to handle all the house issues if something happened to John.

It took about 6 months for the house to sell, the CCRC move to occur, and almost that long to dispossess themselves of all their "stuff".  Selections were finally made, charity trucks carted off many boxes, and the "kids" came with U-Haul trucks.

Eva remained in good heath, but within a year of moving into the CCRC, John developed rapid onset Alzheimer's.  He was moved to the Memory Care Unit, while Eva could stay in her independent apartment in the same complex.  She was able to participate in John's care without being overburdened by worry about safety or costs.  His long term care was fully covered and their were no additional expenses.

Comment:  We are on the cusp of having the Boomer Generation entering into the final phases of their lives.  The problems and expense will be huge.  Very few folks have long term care insurance and some still assume that Medicare covers long term care - it doesn't.  We aren't well prepared as a society to deal with these problems.

Monday, November 25, 2013

Why Is Hospice Often Delayed?

Les called me about his PSA.  "Jim, it's rising and now up to eleven and they're recommending treatment.  What would you do?"  Even as a long retired MD, I still get medical calls from friends and relatives.  Actually, I feel honored and try to do my best, researching the latest journal articles and editorial opinions.  Of course, the prostate cancer literature is cloudy at best with scant evidence that the huge number of surgeries are actually saving lives.  Most of us die with prostate cancer but not of prostate cancer.

Les went ahead with surgery which proved to be both difficult and non-curative.  The cancer was found to have spread into the pelvic lymph nodes, plus he went into a very rapid irregular heart rhythm requiring a stay in the ICU for a few days.  After that he was given radiation and hormone blocking drugs to try to stop the cancer.

Les seemed to stabilize and did reasonably well over the next four years, but then developed pain and fever in the left flank.  The CT scan showed that the kidney was obstructed by a tumor mass.  Looking in there with a scope, a small stent was passed up into the kidney to drain the pus, and a new cancer found in the area - most likely secondary to the radiation he received.

As Les become weaker the family rallied around.  Jeannie, his wife, and the three adult children and seven grandchildren were supportive.  Jeannie went with Les to the Oncologist who prescribed chemotherapy to "buy time", but again there were complications.  Les became weaker, lost all sense of taste and smell, and it was found he had a very low serum sodium level.  This required hospitalization, water restriction, and very expensive drugs.

About this time, Les said "NO MORE".  The treatments had devastating effects that weren't benefiting him.  Jeannie was providing all his care at home, a hospital bed and recliner were purchased, and part time help employed.  The doctors were "giving" Les about a year to live, but when I stopped by to see him, his skin was pale and clammy, his pulse 120, and he could barely stand up.  I asked Jeannie what she would do when the end came.  She said, "Well, I'm not going to call 911 because they would come in and do CPR and Les certainly doesn't want that."

As gently as I could, I recommended that Jeannie talk to her doctors about hospice and introduced her to the POLST form.  Her first reaction was that Les wasn't sick enough yet for the "6 month prognosis".

I responded, "Jeannie, why not just ask for a hospice evaluation and let them get to know him and evaluate his current status.  They are really great at this.  I gave her a Hospice brochure and a POLST form and suggested that she and Les discuss this with their doctors."

Fortunately Les was shortly thereafter on hospice with a signed "DNR" on his POLST form which would be honored by Medic I if called.  Extra help was provided and Jeannie began to get a little more sleep.  Les died a few weeks later with Jeannie and family at the bedside and the hospice nurse present.

Comment:  The stays in hospice remain far too short despite their amazing benefit to patients and families.  One surgeon said, "Dying without hospice would be like having surgery without anesthesia."  One cause of delay in hospice referral is the Medicare requirement that all curative attempts be stopped on entry into hospice.  Medicare has been delayed in initiating a trial to allow continuation of curative attempts while in Hospice.  It remains understandably hard to make the mental and emotional switch from the curative mode to the comfort measures only mode.  So we all need to work on this - the physicians, support groups, chaplains, families, and those involved with palliative care.  Many are unaware that their insurance plan may offer hospice benefits under the age of 65, and also pre-hospice benefits may be available for those wishing to continue curative efforts.

One of the newest specialties in medicine is Palliative Care - those who take a holistic view of the patient, focus on symptoms and comfort measures while taking into account all the variables like spiritual beliefs, other specialties involved, family dynamics, etc,  Long considered to have opposing views, Intensive Care and Palliative Care are finally coming together in the treatment of patients.

Spending my career presiding over many deaths in the ICU, I would have to be prepared to lose a patient after spending days and weeks trying to save the patient.  This requires a shift in thinking and intent - sometimes a huge adjustment for all involved.  Physicians and other care-givers need training and support to acquire palliative skills and this is being done (finally) at a number of institutions such as the University of Washington.  You can log on and become a member if you wish.

Monday, November 11, 2013

Helping A Patient Die - Death with Dignity


Recently at a conference, I invited others to consider posting their stories on this blog about end of life issues.  The following story is from a physician who volunteers with Compassion and Choices in Washington State.  About 1 in 500 deaths in Washington state (0.2%) occur by utilizing Washington's Death with Dignity law - passed by a 59% margin several years ago.  Oregon's similar law was also passed by a voter initiative, and Vermont's legislature recently passed a similar law.  Here is this physician's story:

"As a Client Services Volunteer for Compassion and Choices of WA, (C&C) it is my privilege to help a dying person in choosing his/her way of dying.

A few years ago I helped an incredible woman, 64, end her life.  She had gotten the diagnosis of lung cancer, unrelated to smoking, 4 years earlier.  In the midst of an active and successful career as a consultant for large companies seeking more effective Human Resources, she was stunned by this news.  She had some surgery, which relieved her difficulty with breathlessness, followed by chemotherapy.  The bouts of chemo were hard to tolerate for her as an always healthy, exercising, normal weight person.  But she got through them and enjoyed a remission of 2 years. 

A year later, recurrence was found in her lung, brain and liver.  Radiation and more chemo seemed to shrink these lesions, but her mental acuity was slowly decreasing.  She and her husband decided to pursue, via the Death with Dignity Law, an option to end life if she needed to do that.

Because she had obtained a prognosis or 6 months or less from her physician, she was eligible for that choice in WA. I was called when they contacted C&C, so I met with them in their condo.  We began the process specified by the Law. After another physician confirmed her diagnosis and prognosis, she also was found to be non-depressed and mentally competent to decide.  She completed the Written Request form and the waiting period.  Finally, she obtained the prescription from her personal physician.

She continued to work past her initial 6-month prognosis.  Then her strength forbid the traveling and exertion required.  They took the trip to Antarctica she had always wanted.  However, she again used her strength of character to get there.  Predicted bad weather caused the captain of their small ship to turn back toward the Cape of Good Hope, but she rallied the other passengers to demand that the captain check and recheck the weather.  A better forecast allowed them to proceed to Antarctica. 

She decided to set a time for death when she was unable to go outside for walks with her husband and she was getting more short-term memory loss, to the extent that she could not read books.  They got a rental hospital bed for the living room.  They invited close family and arranged a time with me.  On a weekend morning, after a light snowfall near Christmas the family spent time sharing memories and she took anti-nausea medications.  I arrived and mixed the powder with warm water.

She expressed her love for each person and her gratitude to me.  Holding her husband closely, she drank the small amount of liquid.  She chased the bitter taste with a favorite juice.  Her family gathered near her and held each other.  She quickly slept and died."  Posted by an MD.

Comment: Years ago I had a similar case where I was pretty sure that a patient with end stage mesothelioma was squirreling away sedatives and contemplating ending his life of suffering with an overdose.  He was suffocating as his lungs were being progressively compressed by tumor masses.  I presented his case to our Ethics Committee and was surprised that the Ethics Committee supported his autonomy even though it appeared to violate the "Do No Harm" ethical principle (and was against the law at that time).  In reality I think it could be argued than harm was being forced on this man by not giving him the help he wished.  At any rate I think he may have ended his own life with medications.  How often is this quietly done?  Probably much less often now that Hospice is widely available and a Medicare benefit.  JdeM